The church in the name of the Holy Life-Giving Trinity was first founded in 1642 at the bank of the Studenets River opposite Tambov fortress. The ancient wooden church had been existing until the middle of the 18th century. By that time the building decayed significantly and it was decided to replace it with a new one. The new two-storey stone Trinity church was consecrated in 1771.
One of the main holy objects of the church was the old icon of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker. This icon gave the church its another name used by the common people as Nikolskaya. The street starting from the church was also called Nikolskaya Street (modern Moskovskaya Street).
In the 40s of the 19th century the parishioners started collecting money for the building of a new large church. The new Trinity church was being built in 1846-1857. The huge impressive five-dome church was designed in Russian architecture style. At teh beginning of the 18th century the Trinity church had a status of the cathedral of Tambov diocese.According to the resolution made by the town council in 1933, the Trinity Cathedral was closed and soon taken apart for the construction materials. It was revived in the northern part of Tambov during 2008-2010.