The history of the Roman catholic church in Tambov started in the 60s of the 19th century. After the Polish revolt was squashed in 1863, there was a mass deportation of the Polish rebels to various provinces of Russia. Thousands of Polish catholics traveled to Tambov land. Many of them got accustomed in Tambov but there was a need for a church as a spiritual and cultural center. In October, 1896, in the hall of the public library, Tambov catholics came down with a decision to build their own church in Tambov. The project and cost calculation were develped in 1898. The huge building of the church was constructed in a short period of time – on May, 25, 1903, the church held its first service. Gothic style of the church – alongated building with numerous arrow-headed arches, cornices, fine ornaments and two tall peaked roofs – was unique not only for Tambov but for the whole central Russia. The church was surrouned by greenery and rose gardens.
But the church had been active for only 32 years. In 1918, local authorities made their first attempts to confiscate the church property and unfile the church registers. The church library was closed at the beginning of the 20s and the books were taken out to the Polish party club. Polish priest Kazimir Verzhbitsky was repressed in the 30s of the 20th century. The organ music stopped playing in February, 1935. In June, 1936, the city council suggested to convert the church into a sewing workshop and liquidate the property. The spiritual valuables of the Roman catholic church were wasted and in a few years after the Great Patriotoc War the organ was taken down as well. By the mid 90s of the 20th century, Tambov church was in poor state: destroyed bellfries, corrupted facade, walls corroded with acid fumes, flooded cellar.
In 1996, Tambov catholic community was revived and in the same year the church was returned to the parishioners. Thanks to the funds collected in Poland, it was possible to start the restoration of the church and recreate its original look. In August, 2000, the crosses were consecrated and the spires were erected on top of the bell towers. Consecration and installation of the bells took place on October, 2, 2001. Today, organ music is played in the church again.